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By Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beriya and Rodion Yacovlevich Malinovskiy

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But there may also be a reverse effect: Spatial information may influence our memories for actions. Most of us would share the assumption that if we have to remember a series of actions, knowing the names of the places where the actions took place should enhance memory of the actions (in the sense of the famous loci mnemonic). , spatial information), is not promoted by performing actions. A study by Cornoldi, Corti, and Helstrup (1994) is highly relevant for the present research. The authors expected that imagined places seem to be good cues for remembering actions, both because actions are typically performed in relation to specific places and because imagery is a powerful encoding system for integrating information (Paivio, 1986).

730 720 710 700 690 680 670 660 650 640 0 Forwards Backwards Exp. 1 Exp. 5 Exp. 6 Exp. 50 Fig. 5. Mean reaction times and SD of experiments 1, 5, 6, and 7. 33 In order to test the impact of the route direction effect on the individual levels we once again carried out post hoc t-tests. The table below shows the results. Table 4. Post-hoc t-tests. 189 The results partly confirmed our expectations regarding the route direction effect. A route direction effect can only be evoked when environmental gradients are available.

This was to be expected because a longer SOA causes the target to be pre-activated, regardless of whether it represents and object which was positioned in the direction of acquisition, or not. - We are currently testing the corresponding prediction regarding very short SOAs. (iii) The route direction effect can be demonstrated when the acquired route knowledge is in the form of a simple sequence of images as gradients or as a point of view sequence (see section 1). If route knowledge is gained via a gradient sequence then normal ecological conditions of perception must have existed: The direction of perception must correspond to the direction of movement.

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