By By M. Winternitz.Translated by Mrs. S. Ketkar (and Miss H. Kohn), and revised by the author.
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However, before they were fixed in Pali and had reached Ceylon, they probably also passed through changes in contents. Thus, as regards language and contents, our Pali Tipitaka, though closely approaching the canon compiled under A śoka‚ is yet not identical with it. For we must admit that, in the period from the third to the first century before Christ, when the writingdown took place, and occasionally even still later, the texts suffered many a chango‚ that especially much was added, and that in many cases commentaries penetrated into the texts and became mixed with them.
H. , 627 ff. Only the earliest portions of the monuments, of which little has been preserved, go back to Aêoka's time. Cf. Qrünwedel, 1. c , p. Rapson in Cambridge History, I, p. 523. 24 ; Foucher, 1. c ‚ , p. , p . 627 j BUDDHIST LITERA TURE 17 remnants of the stūpa of Bharhut are at present among the most precious treasures in the Indian Museum at Calcutta, while we are as yet able to admire the magnificent remains of the stūpas of Sanchi in their original place. The railings and gateways of the stūpas of Bharhut and Sānchī are covered with reliefs and inscriptions of inestimable value.
The Khandhakās presup pose a still more advanced organisation. We are struck by the farreaching liberality, if not laxity, in the rules for monastic life. A ccording to the strict regulation the monk is to live only on what he obtains by begging, but he is also allowed to accept invitations to meals. He is to clothe himself in castoff rags, but he may also wear garments of linen, cotton and even silk. He is to live at the foot of a tree, but he may also seek a more comfortable lodging in houses, huts or caves.