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Extra resources for Advanced Concrete Technology 1: Constituent Materials (Advanced Concrete Technology Set)
Setting time may also be extended by the presence of certain minor constituents. An example is fluorine. 1% can be expected to increase setting time by ~ 60 minutes. Both fly ash and slag will increase setting time while a Portland limestone cement may have a slightly shorter setting time than the corresponding pure Portland cement. 7, on cement plants, cement fineness is normally determined with reference to surface area (SA) and 45-micron residue. While surface area is a good guide to the early rate of hydration of cement and thus early strengths, it is a less reliable guide to late strengths and, in particular, to 28-day strengths.
Fly ash performance may be improved by either removing coarse particles (using a classifier similar to that employed in closed-circuit cement grinding) or by cogrinding the ash with clinker. A British Standard (BS 3892: Part1) requires the ash to have a maximum 45 micron residue of 12% and ash meeting this standard is invariably classified. Blastfurnace slag is latently hydraulic and only requires activation by an alkaline environment to generate C–S–H and calcium aluminate hydrates. Although strength development is slower than with ‘pure’ Portland cement it is practicable to produce cements (or concretes) containing 50% slag (by weight of binder) with the same 28-day strength.
The lower density of the ash compared to cement also increases the cement paste volume. Blastfurnace slag grinds to yield angular particles. The slag is unreactive during initial hydration and generally has a neutral influence on water demand. Limestone can have a positive influence on water demand particularly when compared to a more coarsely ground pure Portland cement of the same strength class. This is because the fine limestone particles result in a more progressive (optimized) cement particle size distribution with a lower proportion of voids, which must be filled with water.