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By Jung-Der Wang

...this publication simplifies the layout and inferences of human observational experiences into kinds: descriptive and causal

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Extra info for Basic Principles and Practical Applications of Epidemiological Research (Quantitative Sciences on Biology and Medicine)

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Patients in obstetric ward I were examined by medical students whose poor examination skills resulted in high mortality. Injuries resulting from the delivery of baby are in general much greater traumas than rough examinations. Midwives who received their training in ward II might examine the patient in a similar manner but did not show the same ill effect. Moreover, the mortality rate of puerperal fever persisted after examinations performed by medical students were minimized or even terminated temporarily.

Affected workers were exposed to paraquat. H„: Affected workers were Observations and Measurements exposed to bipyridyls. 2 out of 82 workers, exposed only to paraquat, developed skin lesions, while all 17 workers with hyperkeratotic skin lesions had a direct exposure to bipyridines. 3 Future refutation attempts Enclosure of all of processes involving bipyridine resulted in no more new cases. * Refutations H b H2, ... | were all refuted. Only Hn remain unrefuted, and sunlight was found to be a co-factor.

10). The skin lesion was tentatively attributed to a combination of bipyridyl exposures and sunlight. In the follow-up study, the investigators made additional attempts to refute their hypothesis by enclosing all processes involving bipyridyl exposure. Since no more new cases occurred at the enclosed factory, their conclusion presently remains valid. 2 Outbreak of premalignant and malignant skin lesions among paraquat manufacturers (Wang et al, 1987) Cases of Bowen's disease and hyperkeratosis in a paraquat manufacturing factory Conjectures H,: Ionizing radiation H2: Tars, soots, pitch, etc.

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