By Stephen Nowicki
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Additional info for Biology: The Science of Life
C. Watson and Crick’s model became known as the semiconservative model, because the DNA is disassembled during replication, but the original strands are incorporated whole in the new copies. D. The competing models each predicted a different mixture of genetic material after a copying process. 1. The semiconservative model leads to a prediction that each new DNA molecule would be made of one original strand and one freshly created strand. 2. The conservative model predicts that new copies would contain freshly created strands but that the originals would also remain intact.
In eukaryotes, the initial RNA transcript includes large segments of RNA that are not part of the code needed to produce a protein. These stretches must be eliminated somehow in order to make a fully functional transcript for the protein. B. The average size of a transcription unit is about 8,000 nucleotides long. Once the noncoding nucleotides are removed, the average size of a transcript is about 1,200 nucleotides. This means that as much as 85% of the transcribed mRNA is cut out and not translated!
34 ©2004 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership ©2004 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership 35 Lecture Eight The Central Dogma Scope: This lecture introduces the Central Dogma of molecular biology, which dictates that genetic information flows only in one direction—from DNA to RNA to proteins, not in reverse—and which serves as a broad conceptual framework for understanding how information stored in DNA is transformed into protein structure. We conclude this lecture with a discussion of RNA viruses and retroviruses, biological entities that serve as illustrative exceptions to the Central Dogma because they violate the typical path for the flow of genetic information.