Download British Civilization: An Introduction, 5th edition (2002) by John Oakland PDF

By John Oakland

Widely revised and up-to-date, the 5th variation of British Civilization comprises new illustrations, devolution, extra debate and cultural fabric and covers correct as much as 2001.

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Extra resources for British Civilization: An Introduction, 5th edition (2002)

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This has caused public concern about the safety of drinking water from reservoirs, and the water companies (the worst business polluters in 2001) have been pressurized to raise the quality of their services. Many polluted rivers, lakes and estuaries have now been cleaned up and more stringent controls of the oil and shipping industries in the North Sea have reduced pollution levels. Problems have been experienced with the exploitation of energy resources, such as expense, capacity and availability, and there are environmental concerns about the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas), global warming and the damage to the countryside caused by new developments.

Identification with even smaller local areas was arguably more significant when the British were a rural people living in villages and were less mobile. But today, this identity may still be strongly focused on cities (such as Manchester, Liverpool, Glasgow, Belfast, London and Cardiff) or on English and Welsh counties rather than the larger regional areas. Physical features and climate Historically, Britain’s physical features have influenced human settlement, population movements, military conquest and political union.

It seriously affects both urban and rural areas, is a threat to people’s health (particularly asthmatics) and was linked for the first time in 1997 to heart attacks. Although pollution was reduced by Clean Air Acts in the 1950s and 1960s, it still reaches harmful levels, particularly in summer when pollutants mix with sunshine and still humid conditions to produce high ozone levels. Although Britain has reduced carbon dioxide emissions and the Labour government is concerned to improve its record, pollution will worsen as the deterioration in public transport encourages more people to use private vehicles.

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