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By Prof. Dr. Gundolf H. Kohlmaier, Dr. Michael Weber, Dr. Dr. Richard A. Houghton (auth.)

The lntergovernmental Panel on weather switch (IPCC) has lately summarized the kingdom ofthe artwork in study on weather switch (Climate switch 1995). the freshest study findings were divided into 3 volumes: • the technological know-how ofClimate switch (working team I), • the affects, Adaption and Mitigation of weather switch (working staff II), and • the commercial and Social Dimensions ofClimate switch (working workforce III) there's a normal consensus severe switch in weather can in simple terms be kept away from if the longer term emissions of greenhouse gases are diminished significantly from the enterprise as traditional projection and if even as the traditional sinks for greenhouse gases, specifically that of CO , are maintained at present point or 2 preferrably elevated. Forests, forestry and forestry are very important components of the worldwide carbon cycle and hence also they are a part of the mitigation potentials in at the least a threefold method: 1. in the course of the period of time among 1980 and 1989 there has been a web emission of CO from alterations in tropical land use (mostly tropical deforestation) of two 1. 6 +/- 1 GtC/a, yet even as it was once predicted that the forests within the northem hemisphere have taken up zero. five +/- zero. five GtC/a and also different terrestrial sinks (including tropical forests the place no clearing came about) were a carbon sink ofthe order of l. three +/- l.

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1995 North Arneriea -10 -215 Europe -10 -115 Kauppi et al. 1992 Former Soviet Union 60 -250 Kolchugina and Vinson 1995 Shvidenko and Ni1sson 1997 Total 40 -580 For Europe, the annual rate of accumulation of growing stocks (before harvest) (ECE/FAO 1992) was converted to the annual uptake of carbon in vegetation (200 TgC yr-l) and added to the analysis by Kauppi et al. (1992). S. (Turner et al. 1995). The adjusted net flux was 115 TgC yr-l (Table 2), within the range of85-120 TgC given by Kauppi et al.

Results. Over the period 1850 to 1990 about 100 PgC are estimated to have been transferred from forests to the atmosphere as a result of human activity. This loss from forests accounted for more than 85 % of the total net release of carbon from all types of ecosystems (Fig. I). Most of the losses of carbon that were not from forests were from cultivated mid-Iatitude grassland soils. :. 2 0 1850 1870 1890 1910 1930 1950 1970 Year Fig. 1. Annual net flux of carbon from global changes in land use, including those changes involving forests and those not involving forests (from Houghton and Hackler 1995) The total net loss of carbon from temperate zone and boreal forests (32 Pg) was about half ofthe amount lost from tropical forests (68 Pg) over the 140-year period.

Clearing and recovery of forests probab1y occurred many times in the woodlands of Europe, China, and Africa (Darby 1956; Andrews 1994). Although the expansion of agricultural areas undoubtedly led to a loss of carbon from land and arelease of carbon to the atmosphere, the effect on atmospheric CO2 was transitory rather than cumulative. Most of the carbon added to the atmosphere does not remain in the atmosphere longer than a few centuries but is absorbed by the oceans. If human activity were responsible for prolonged clearing of forests, the resulting emissions are not readily observed in the record of atmospheric CO2 concentrations preserved in glacial ice.

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