Download Catalysis: v. 18 (Specialist Periodical Reports) by J.J. Spivey PDF

By J.J. Spivey

There's an expanding problem for chemical and examine associations to discover affordable and environmentally sound tools of changing usual assets into fuels chemical substances and effort. Catalysts are necessary to those methods and the Catalysis expert Periodical file sequence serves to spotlight significant advancements during this zone. This sequence offers systematic and distinctive experiences of subject matters of curiosity to scientists and engineers within the catalysis box. The insurance comprises all significant components of heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis and likewise particular functions of catalysis similar to NOx keep an eye on kinetics and experimental recommendations resembling microcalorimetry. every one bankruptcy is compiled by way of famous specialists inside their professional fields and gives a precis of the present literature. expert Periodical experiences offer systematic and unique overview insurance in significant parts of chemical learn. Compiled by means of groups of best specialists of their expert fields, this sequence is designed to aid the chemistry neighborhood retain present with the newest advancements of their box. every one quantity within the sequence is released both every year or biennially and is an excellent reference element for researchers.

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Extra info for Catalysis: v. 18 (Specialist Periodical Reports)

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Furthermore, these novel phases did not require an extensive activation period to achieve full catalytic activity. These observations, however, contradict a number of published studies that reported that the presence of crystalline vanadyl(1V) pyrophosphate was critical for superior activity and selectivity in n-butane oxidation [l-4,1561. The VPO catalysts consisting of dominant (VO)ZP207 and voPo4 impurity phases were prepared using ultrasound and microwave irradiation methods [157]. The ultrasound method produced a catalyst in a relatively short time that had similar composition and surface area to those prepared by conventional organic method.

YO)than for the unpromoted VPO catalyst (27 mol. YO)at 673 K. The authors suggested that the introduction of Ce-Fe oxides improved the redox performance of VPO catalysts by increasing the lattice oxygen activity. The authors suggested that Ce leads to the formation of highly selective oxygen species, while Fe increases the reactivity of oxygen species. Zazhigalov et al. [1191 studied the incorporation of alkali and alkaline-earth metal ions in the VPO lattice. 20, leading to increased negative charge on 1: Vanadium-Phosphorus-Oxides 33 lattice oxygen atoms and enhancing the rate of n-butane oxidation.

The VPO system has been intensively studied over the last two decades and significant fundamental insights into the mechanism of n-butane oxidation to maleic anhydride have been obtained. 10)is considered as the most active and selective phase for n-butane oxidation. The catalytic performance of VPO catalysts in this reaction can be improved by the introduction of certain promoters. However, there is still a lack of agreement in the literature concerning specific roles of these promoters in controlling the morphology, phase and elemental (bulk and surface) compositions, structures and redox properties of VPO catalysts, which define their catalytic performance.

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