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By Michael Burgan

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The Mongol general ordered his archers to shoot at the animals, not the riders.  .  . ” Although the Mongols won, their victory led to only limited control over Pagan. Khubilai sent more troops there during the 1280s, forcing the kingdom to pay tribute. Mongol influence also reached into what is now Vietnam and part of Indonesia. The Mongol army fought a series of battles with two Vietnamese kingdoms, Annam and Champa. indd 44 7/31/09 10:01:01 AM Completing the Mongol Empire control over their lands.

The Mongols believed animal skins and organs could cure illnesses, especially if they were fresh. Even before he had complete control of China, Khubilai looked to further conquests in East Asia. His first concern was Korea, which Chinggis had invaded in 1218. Chinggis forced the Koreans to pay tribute to him, but they stopped making this payment a few years later. The Mongols invaded Korea again in 1231, but the country did not come under firm Mongol control until the end of Möngke’s reign, in 1258.

Going into the 1350s, the emperor and his supporters controlled the region around Khan-baliq, but not much else. Toghan Temür and his generals had trouble controlling the growing threat to their rule. Earlier wars and the need for Mongol soldiers in other parts of the empire had caused the native Mongol population to drop. This meant they could not recruit more soldiers from the Mongol homeland. Toghan Temür added to his problems by relying on warlords (regional military commanders) to defend his empire.

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